RAP opportunity at National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA
Predictability of Weather and Climate
Location
Earth System Research Laboratories, Global Systems Laboratory
opportunity 
location 

26.05.04.B8073 
Boulder, CO 80305 
Advisers
name 
email 
phone 

Zoltan Toth 
zoltan.toth@noaa.gov 
(719) 5013186 
Description
Prediction is an effort to retain from an initial time into the future as much information about the state of a dynamical system as possible. It is well known that in chaotic systems, if the initial information about the state of the system is incomplete, eventually all information is lost due to the exponential divergence of initially nearby trajectory segments. The limit of initial value related predictability can then be defined as the lead time where a forecast with a perfect model loses skill (i.e., its error reaches a predefined value). Initial value related predictability can be defined both for the atmosphere  “weather predictability” on the time scale of hours or days, and the coupled atmosphere  ocean  land surface (AOL) system  often referred to as “climate predictability”, on the time scale of months to decades. The limit of predictability is of course a function of the error level in the estimate of the state of the system at initial time. It is understood that with any given level of initial error, the time limit of predictability is finite. Whether predictability is also bounded in a sense that reducing initial errors beyond a certain threshold may not yield further extension of the forecast period with useful skill is an open question.
Besides its initial value related definition, climate predictability has another interpretation, referring to the “prediction” of the climatic equilibrium of a dynamical system under a set of external forcing, such as the atmosphere’s long term response to a predefined lower boundary condition, or the coupled AOL system’s response to changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases. Unlike initial value related predictability, equilibrium predictability, however, is not related to forecasting in time. Yet for the lack of a better approach, climate equilibrium is customarily assessed via averaging all states from extended integrations of atmospheric or coupled numerical forecast models. Are there more direct and more economical ways to predict the response of dynamical systems to changes in their external forcing? Additional related research topics include the initialization of imperfect models, the study of the independent degrees of freedom in atmospheric dynamics, and the development of a variance prediction model or a statistical weather generator.
key words
Chaotic error growth; Butterfly effect; Limits of predictability; Ensemble forecasting; Targeted observations; Model related forecast errors; Climatic equilibrium
Eligibility
Citizenship:
Open to U.S. citizens, permanent residents and nonU.S. citizens
Level:
Open to Postdoctoral and Senior applicants
Stipend
Base Stipend 
Travel Allotment 
Supplementation 

$60,000.00 
$2,000.00 
$5000 supplement for PhD in Atmospheric Modeling 
Experience Supplement:
Postdoctoral and Senior Associates will receive an appropriately higher stipend based on the number of years of experience past their PhD.
